1. General Information
2. History of Anatolia
3. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
4. Form of government
5. Ankara
6. Istanbul
7. Economy
8. Places to see
9. Religion
10. Sports
11. Turkish Cuisine

Turkey is surrounded by seas
- Capital: Ankara
- Area: 780,580 sq km
- Population: about 74 million inhabitants.
- Currency: Turkish lira
- Anthem: The Anthem of Independence
- Form of government: republican parliamentary democracy;
unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; the members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); the president is elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year term; the prime minister and deputy prime minister are appointed by the president.
- Language: Turkish
- Religion: Muslim
- National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, October 29 (1923)

The Turkish flag

The currency of Turkey is the Turkish Lira

Turkish coins

The exchange rates:
1 Dollar = 1.54 Turkish Liras (6.7.2009)
1 Euro = 2.15 Turkish Liras (6.7.2009)
1 Pound = 2.50 Turkish Liras (6.7.2009)

Anatolia is one of the oldest continually inhabited regions in the world, and it has repeatedly served as a battleground for foreign powers. The earliest major empire in the area was that of the HITTITES, from the 18th through the 13th century BC. Subsequently, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until their kingdom was destroyed by the CIMMERIANS in the 7th century BC. The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states was LYDIA. Coastal Anatolia (IONIA) meanwhile was settled by Greeks. The entire area was overrun by the Persians during the 6th and 5th centuries and fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC. Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (including BITHYNIA, CAPPADOCIA, PERGAMUM, and PONTUS), all of which had succumbed to Rome by the mid-1st century BC. In 324 AD the Roman emperor CONSTANTINE I chose Constantinople, now Istanbul, as the capital of the Roman Empire. It subsequently became the capital of the Eastern Roman or BYZANTINE EMPIRE.

In 1055 a group of Central Asiatic Turks, the SELJUKS, conquered Baghdad and established a Middle Eastern and Anatolian empire. When this empire was broken up by the Mongol invasion, one of the remaining local powers became known as the Ottoman dynasty, after its leader OSMAN I. The OTTOMAN EMPIRE spread from northwestern Anatolia and captured Constantinople in 1453. At the peak of their power the Ottomans controlled much of the eastern Mediterranean. The Ottomans had a sophisticated system of internal administration and also organized the first standing army in Europe.

As the Ottoman Empire began to collapse under its own weight in the 18th and 19th centuries, it became a battleground for rival European powers, wedged as it was between the Russian and Austrian empires. By the outbreak of World War I the Ottoman Empire had essentially been divided into spheres of influence by the great European powers, but a reform movement was active within the Ottoman Empire itself. The YOUNG TURKS brought about a revolution in 1908 and were successful in introducing civil and social reforms of far-reaching consequence.

In 1922, however, the Turks, led by Mustafa Kemal (later known as Kemal ATATÜRK) and Ismet INONU, defeated the armies occupying Anatolia. Inonu then won what has been called "the greatest diplomatic victory in history" when the Treaty of Lausanne recognized the Republic of Turkey. The republic was declared on Oct. 29, 1923, and Atatürk was elected its first president. Turkey remained neutral in World War II until it joined the Allies in February 1945. Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1952.



He is universally acknowledged as the founding father of the modern state of Turkey. He was also his country's first President. He was a visionary statesman and a military leader. His surname, Atatürk, means the ancestor of Turks. This name was given to him by the first Turkish parliament for his accomplishments and for his invaluable contributions to the birth and modernization of the Turkish Republic.


Abdullah Gül, the President

In Turkey, we have a Parliamentary Republic. The president is elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year term.
Turkey wants to join the European Union. Turkey began full membership negotiation in 2005

Ankara is the capital city of Turkey, the country's second largest city after Istanbul.




In terms of agricultural lands, Turkey is also one of the largest countries in the world. Animal husbandry is an important part of Turkey's agricultural sector and economy. Its warm climate lets many kinds of food crops grow, and livestock and forestry are important industries. Turkey is one of the few countries in the world that can make enough food to feed itself.

There is a strong manufacturing sector making airplanes, electronics, cars, clothing and textiles for home and for other countries.
Meanwhile forestry and fishing contribute a minimal amount.

Natural beauties of Turkey
Turkey is a popular place for tourists to visit.
It has hundreds of kilometers of beautiful beaches on its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, and many important historical places.

Mount Ağrι 5,137m

Historical heritages
Turkey has hosted many different civilizations. So, there are a lot of outdoor and indoor museums.
The most famous ones are:



Topkapι Museum

Ethnography Museum

The Best 10 Outdoor Museums
1. Ephesus
2. Bergama
3. Afrodisias
4. Perga
5. Hierapolis
6. Nimrod
7. Göreme
8. Miletus
9. Hasankeyf
10. Zeugma


One of the seven wonders of the ancient world, Ephesus


Zeugma, the secret city of history



Göreme, Chimney Rocks

Hasankeyf, a natural conservation area where you dream history

Most of the population of Turkey is Muslim.
The rest is composed of Christian communities.
It is possible to see, the houses of worship
of the three major religions side by side,
which is rarely seen in any other country.

Mor Gabriel Monastery, one of the oldest monasteries in the world

The Sümela Monastery, founded in the year 386 AD

Church and Mosque side by side in Mardin


National Oil Wrestling

CIRIT: Jereed (cirit), a traditional Turkish equestrian sport

Anyone who visits Turkey or has had a meal in a Turkish home, regardless of the success of the particular cook, is sure to notice how unique the cuisine is.

Lahmacun (Turkish pizza)

Şiş kebab

Turkish delight

Yoghurt was first made by ancient Turks.

Sarma and dolma

Döner kebab


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The City of Culture and History 


  1. The city of stones and dreams, Diyarbakιr
  2. Mesopotamia: The "Cradle Of Civilization".
  3. Diyarbakιr throughout History
  4. Today
  5. Watermelon
  6. Historical treasures in Diyarbakιr
  7. Museums
  8. Historical Goldsmith Bazaar and Handicrafts


Diyarbakιr lies in Southeastern Anatolia, in the North of Mesopotamia. The city itself, Diyarbakιr, is 7,500 years old. Throughout history it has been the focus of great civilizations, of cultural and economic movements. The walls of Diyarbakιr, one of the most spectacular defense structures in the world, also give clues about the historical past of the city.



Mesopotamia (the Greek for "between the rivers") is the region where parts of Iraq, eastern Syria, and southeastern Turkey are now, between the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. It is part of the Fertile crescent.
The area is often called "the Cradle of Civilization". The ancient writing called cuneiform was first used around 3000 BC by the Sumerians. Many great advances in technology were made by the ancient Sumerians and Mesopotamians, such as irrigation, the use of small canals in order to move water through fields, and trade by river. The Mesopotamians created the "almost modern" form of paper, and were the first to domesticate animals, or livestock.
The Mesopotamians also wrote a long story called The Epic Of Gilgamesh, who was a famous king in the city of Uruk. His best friend, called Enkidu, lived in the wilderness with animals before a priestess defouled him and tore away his innocence, a great shame in the eyes of humanity. The priestess introduced him to Gilgamesh and they became friends.
Mesopotamia was also the place which saw the birth of the wheel, first it was a potter wheel that was used to make claypots then the Sumerians adapted it for their transportation, they also invented mathematics, the calendar and archelogy.

Diyarbakιr is located in the centre of Mesopotamia.


Diyarbakιr has been a great place for civilizations of cultural and economical movements.
Diyarbakιr has hosted 26 civilizations throughout history, such as:

Safevis and Ottomans


The people of Diyarbakιr have left traces that immortalize the city.
It is the largest city in the southeast of Turkey. Diyarbakιr is famous for its culture, folklore, watermelons, castle and fortress. The province covers an area of 1.355km² for a population of 1,494,321 inhabitants.

As the second largest city in Southeastern Anatolia, Diyarbakιr consists of two main settlements known as the "old" and "new" city. The old part of the city is surrounded by walls. These four-gated walls are the longest and strongest of all similar structures still standing in Anatolia. Important historical buildings of the city remain within the area surrounded by walls. Contrasting with the old city, the new city expanded more recently in a planned manner and looks much more modern with its avenues, parks, houses, official buildings and hotels. The Tigris is the major river flowing through the city.


In our country all cities have something famous. This may be either fruit, vegetables, or other products/things; Diyarbakιr is famous for its Watermelon.
"Biggest watermelon" and other watermelon related contests/festivals are yearly organized in September.
Last year, the winner watermelon was 46 kilos.




6.1 . Diyarbakιr : Castle and Fortress
Diyarbakιr is surrounded by an almost intact, dramatic set of high walls of black basalt forming a 5.5km (3.4m) circle around the old city. They are 12-meter-high and 3 to 3.5-meter-wide with 82 towers. In terms of antiquity, they are unrivalled anywhere in the world. They are the second longest walls after China. From the air it seems like a fish, a turbot.

The Diyarbakιr Citadel is one of the finest treasures of human history. The date when it was first built is not known.



There are four gates into the old city and 82 watch-towers on the walls, which were built in antiquity, restored and extended by the Roman emperor Constantine in 349. The first section of the castle was supposedly built by the Hurris.
It consists of two sections, the outer fortress and the inner castle. The outer fortress walls contain 82 bastions and are 5 km long and have four gates. The inner castle also has four gates and was surrounded by walls during the period of Sultan Süleyman the Great.


In 349 during the reign of Roman Emperor Constantinus II, walls were built round the city, and the Fortress was reinforced. It is made of basalt stones. During the Artuklu, Akkoyunlu, Selçuk, Ottoman and Republican eras it was restored many times.


6.2 . Places of worship

6.2.1 . Mosques

Ulu Camii
("Great Mosque")
built by the Seljuk Turkish Sultan Malik Shah in the 11th century

Hazreti Süleyman Mosque
1155-1169 - Süleyman son of Halid Bin Velid, who died capturing the city from the Arabs, is buried here along with his companions.

Nebii Camii

another Ak Koyunlu mosque, a single-domed stone construction from the 16th century. Nebi Camii means "the mosque of the prophet" and is so-named because of the number of inscriptions in honour of the prophet on its minaret.

Dört Ayaklι Minare
(the four-footed minaret)
built by Kasim Khan of the Akkoyunlu, it is said that anyone who passes seven times between the four columns will have their wishes granted.

6.2.2 . Churches

There are lots of churches in the city. Many of them are still in use as a place of worship today.

The Church of Virgin Mary

Surp Giragos Church

6.3 . The Tigris Bridge

The Tigris Bridge is also known as the Bridge of Ten Arches and was built in 1065.

6.4 . Caves

Diyarbakιr has very ancient inhabited locations.

The Hassuni Caves

The Bιrkleyn Caves

The Hilar Caves

It presents the first relics and the first steps of civilization of mankind.
It dates back to the middle Paleolithic era. (7,250 BC)
For a long time, it was said that the civilization began in Egypt. But evidences show that Çayönü is where humans moved from hunting to settlement.



The Archaeology Museum
The largest Neolithic settlements are kept in the Archaeology Museum in Diyarbakιr.


The Ziya Gökalp Museum And Cahit Sιtkι Tarancι House
Cahit Sιtkι Tarancι Museum - the home of the late poet is a classic example of a traditional Diyarbakιr home.
The birthplace of poet Ziya Gökalp has been preserved as a museum to his life and works.



Artisans form gold and silver and turn out traditional necklaces, bracelets and clogs.



One of the traditional handicrafts are copperware and goldsmith's trade.

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Cizrelioğlu is the most famous family of Diyarbakιr.
After Ömer Şevki's death his wife Mrs Nafiye decided to build this school in memory of her husband. She currently lives in Istanbul.

General Information:
Our school's name is Nafiye Ömer Şevki Cizrelioğlu secondary school. It is located in Kayapιnar District. Our school has been active since February 2003. It is a very big school containing nearly 2.500 students. Our school is one of the most well-known educational institutions in Diyarbakιr.


Our teaching and administrative staffs consist of 1 school manager (principal), 4 manager assistants, 70 teachers, 1 security guard and various other workers. Our headmaster is Mr Abdullah Hasar.

The facilities:
Our school consists of two huge buildings, a gymnasium and a canteen. Our school provides the students with a learning environment open to improvements and the use of contemporary teaching methods. We have physics, biology, chemistry laboratories and technology classrooms for foreign language teaching. Moreover, guidance services, a university preparation unit, university counselling are available at school.

Daily Periods:
Our school starts at 07:30 a.m. juniors, seniors and also sophomores (science classes) attend lessons and they leave school at 11:50 a.m.
In the afternoon 9th and 10th grades attend lessons from 12:10 to 16:30 p.m. We have 4 breaks a day. We have a blocked lesson system; it means we have 10-minute breaks after 80-minute lessons. Our guidance service teachers help students (pupils) for their problems or lesson study programmes and keep in touch with pupils' parents.

Teaching Methods:
We use common teaching techniques at our school. Interaction especially between teachers and students is favoured. But it sometimes depends on lessons. For instance chemistry teachers teach the subject, and check if the students know their lessons. Students write many examples on the board. This sort of teaching is used for all science lessons (chemistry). The other lessons have different teaching methods for instance history philosophy and Geography. Geography requires maps, philosophy lessons require debating of the ancient and modern thinkers or philosophers.

Student Activity Clubs:
Our school has different clubs and activities such as chess, folklore, library, sports club.

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