Belianska cave, the national monument, lies below the northern slope of the Mare's Hill (1,109m), in the Eastern part of the Belianske Tatry Mountains. It is located in the Tatranská Lomnica cadastral area within the Poprad Country, in the Belianske Tatry Mountains nature reserve, spread on a part of the Tatry National Park. The entrance into the cave is situated 890m above sea level, 122m above the Tatranská Kotlina car park.

The Belianske Tatry Mountains rank among the most significant karst areas in the High Tatry Mountains with their highest trails found above forest uppermost boundaries being already in the high-mountain karst altitude. The Eastern part of the Belianske Tatry Mountains represents a mountain dissected karst, in which the river karst fault valley of Biela was formed. Apart from Belianska Cave, there are two other well-known caves in the area, the Alabaster Cave and the Ice Cavern.


Belianska cave was formed in the Middle Triassic dark-grey Gutenstein limestone of the Krížňanský nappe. The cave spaces formation was conditioned by interbed surface in particular, while effect of surface water from melted snow, ice or heavy rainfalls, leaking inside along tectonic faults was of lesser importance. The free surface above the cave was then larger and showed much less damage due to denudation than it does now.
Water that was filtered into the cave turned into streams and these caused, apart from some corrosion, extensive rock pressure erosion. Eventually, lower parts of the cave became clogged due to sediment extensive floating, in the course of cave formation. The proof that the cave cavity was once flooded  with water up to 27m level from bottom (from the White Dome  up to the Concert Hall) can be seen on horizontally spread clay beds, cemented with sinter. Evorsion kettles and hollows can be seen throughout the cave ceiling. Water heave occurred in the Explorer's Dome, as well.

It is assumed that the cave was created during the early quaternary period, or perhaps even earlier, during the tertiary period. A paleomagnetic research carried out in the cave proved that the section above the Concert Hall contains some clay and sand alluvia, the age of which extends over 780 thousand years. These were deposited during the early quaternary period or by the end of the tertiary period. Subterranean cavities were created prior to sediments deposition.

Currently the surface water leaking into the cave is accumulating in the lowermost cave parts (Abyss Corridor, Famine Precipice), and creates occasional subterranean streamlets. Their rise is most likely in the Biela riverbed below the cave. The amount of precipitation in the cave area is approximately 1,420mm per year.
The cave total length extends to 1,752m and its vertical span is 160m. The cave main entrance hall is accessible through a thirled tunnel. Vertical shafts, leading from the original upper entrance 82m above the currently used one, infall into these spaces. Ascending as well as descending parts of the pathway predisposed by interbed surfaces ascend from Rázcestie (Crossroads) and they are locally enlarged by collapses into dome and hall spaces (Collapsed Dome, Dome of Ruins). A number of preserved oval shapes of water modelling can be seen at several route points (Tube Dome, Long Corridor, Abyss Corridor). The considerable vertical segmentation of the cave is further accentuated by precipices (Famine Precipice, Hell and Deep Dome Abyss) and high vertical shafts.



What attracts one's attention most are sinter waterfalls (high Dome, Outlaw's Chamber, SNP Dome, Waterfall Dome, Concert Hall, Deep Dome) and pagoda-like stalagmites (Palm Hall), Several stalactite types are also present, as well as hanging curtain-like draperies and varied sinter forms in pools (Gallery, Treasure House, White Hall). Some cave pearls have even been found in the occasional streamlet flow on the Famine Precipice bottom.



Air temperature in the cave, except for its entrance parts, changes very little, being in the range between 5.0 to 5.8°c (41to 42.44°F), with a relative humidity from 90 to 97%. Due to increased air circulation in winter, air temperature in the cave entry drops, at the cave lowermost parts which results in forming cave glaciations not melting until late spring. Air temperature fluctuations at the cave bottom range between -2.2°c and +5.1°c. During the mid-thirties there was an attempt to increase cave appeal to attract more visitors by achieving permanent glaciations (by closing lower entrance). It failed. A negative effect was attained instead, since this effort lead to increased weathering of sinter filling due to extended periods with freezing temperatures.


So far, as many as seven bat species have been reported to live in the cave, out of which the Greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) is the dominant species. Other species such as Whiskered bat (Myotis mystacinus), Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii), Geoffroy's bat (Myotis emarginatus) are less frequent, and Common long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) and Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii) species are rare. Even such unique bat species as Lesser horsehoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) has been reported to live here. Tiny invertebratesĀ such as Bathynella natans can also be found in cave pools. The length of its white body extends to 1 or 2mm only. It is believed to be the crustacean Palaeozoic relict. 



The cave entrance has long been known as proved by the number of names left on cave walls by treasure seekers during the first half of the eighteenth century. Lorenz Gulden from Spišská Belá and Fabry, a gold prospector from Kežmarok discovered a narrow hole into subterranean spaces in 1826. As there was a strong draught that repeatedly blew off the candlelight they were unable to enter deeper into the cave. In the summer 1881 while on bear hunt, the place was accidentally found by Július Husz, Johan Britz and his son, the Spišská Belá residents, who noticed a narrow opening barricaded behind decayed wooden logs.
In early August 1881 Július Husz and Johan Britz with his son dared to explore the darkness of unknown subterranean spaces. This date is now considered as the official discovery date.
Since then, the interest of visitors as well as scientists has never withered.


There is an old belief concerning one of the stalactites called the Gossip, in fact this stalactite is shaped like a tongue. According to this belief, any woman who touches this tongue will turn into a GOSSIP for one year. Scandalmonger would say that many women must have visited Belianska cave!

The Gossip


Janošík was a poor boy who lived in a small house in a quiet village called Terchová near Liptovský Mikuláš. One day rich men invaded his house and killed Jánošík's family.
Fortunately he escaped to the nearest forest. Jánošík stayed and survived in the forest and became a highwayman. Every day he gradually obtained information about the rich men. At last he had all necessary information to find the rich men.
He was in love with Zuzka. She helped him make a plan. Later Jánošík robbed the rich men in the forest. That's why they were angry with him. A few days later more rich men conceived a plan to catch him but it wasn't easy, because he had a miraculous belt, which he always wore.
The men knew that Jánošík was used to going to the village to meet his girlfriend. At the grocer's an old woman threw peas under his feet and he fell down. Thus he was captured. In the end he was hanged on a hook and died.
He was and he will always be our hero because he wanted to help the poor. His motto was: "Take from the rich and give the poor!"



Myths about the existence of dragons were confirmed mainly by bones of cave bears which became extinct. Their bones were mainly found in the caves and in the area of Slovakia. The cave bear was one of the most typical animals in pleistocene. In caves, bears survived winters, they gave birth to their cubs and died. That's why the large number of bones and whole skeletons were found there. Belianske caves belong to the most significant findings of them. These bones were not always only bones of bears but also the remains of cave lions, hyenas or other big animals. It was supposed that the huge-sized bones belonged to dragons. People were also attracted by strange fossils and corals. Some of them resembled brain and they were called dragon stones.